Introducing CleanCoat™

ACT CleanCoat™ is based on a disruptive technology that is specifically engineered to fight harmful microbes. When ACT CleanCoat™ is applied to surfaces they become self-disinfecting and decompose microbes like bacteria, viruses, airborne mould spores, and chemical compounds like VOCs.

The coating is transparent and odourless and can be applied to all surfaces. Once exposed to light, it starts a photocatalytic reaction that decomposes microbes and purifies the air.

ACT CleanCoat™ is approved for use on all surfaces, including surfaces with direct food contact and has a non-rinse claim.


A diagram showing how CleanCoat™ uses light to generate electron-hole pairs that transform the humidity in the air into free radicals. These free radicals then continually decompose any bacteria, viruses or VOCs that they come into contact with

In the presence of indoor or outdoor light, ACT CleanCoat™ uses Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) to turn natural humidity and oxygen into free radicals in a natural process called photocatalysis.

When TiO₂ is exposed to light, it generates electron-hole pairs that transform the humidity in the air into free radicals. Free radicals continuously decompose bacteria, viruses, and the volatile organic compounds that they come into contact with.


Titanium dioxide
Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is a naturally occurring oxide and is the key ingredient in ACT CleanCoat™. It has a wide range of applications, including as a paint pigment, sunscreen ingredient, and food additive.


The Effects of ACT CleanCoat™

Decomposing microbes

To be recognized as a biocide within the European Union, a product has to pass a biocidal European norm test (EN-test) and be registered with the European Chemical Agency.

EN-tests are technical standards drafted and maintained by the European Committee for Standardization, the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute.


One of the institutes that has performed an EN-test on ACT CleanCoat™ is the German lab, Dr. Brill and Partner, GmbH. In their report of testing ACT CleanCoat™, they conclude:

After evaluation with poliovirus type 1, adenovirus type 5 and MNV the surface disinfectant ACT CleanCoat can be declared as having “virucidal” properties according to EN 14476:2013. Therefore, after successful experiments with the three above mentioned non-enveloped viruses the test product is also effective against the so-called blood-borne viruses including HBV, HCV and HIV as well as against members of other virus families such as orthomyxoviridae (incl. all human and animal influenza viruses like H5N1 and H1N1), coronaviridae (MERS-CoV) and filoviridae including Ebola virus.


The Danish ISI Food Protection laboratory has also tested ACT CleanCoat™ and concluded:

The results show that ACT CleanCoat™ at an 80% dilution complies with the requirements for chemical disinfectants as defined in EN 13727 against the compulsory organisms S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and E. hirae and furthermore against MRSA, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes.

Based on the extensive investigations, it is expected that ACT CleanCoat™ will have comparable bactericidal efficacy in the quantitative suspension test against vegetative cells of other pathogenic bacteria.


Cleaning the air

ACT CleanCoat™ reduces air pollutants, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as formaldehyde, benzene, and acetone as well as NOx. VOCs can cause a drowsiness experience in a room with poor ventilation or with new furniture, new carpets, or many electronics.

ACT CleanCoat™ also reduces odors (which are also carbon-based molecules) in the air, providing our clients with better indoor air quality.


Controlling mould

In nature, mould is necessary to help dead organic material decompose. However, mould poses a significant challenge in buildings. Besides the unpleasant odour and possibly costly renovation of the building, there are serious health risks involved in living and working in a mould-infested environment.

Mould spores are basically everywhere, but with ACT CleanCoat™ they are decomposed before they even settle on a coated surface, inhibiting spore germination, or mycelium growth.

ACT CleanCoat™ has passed several EN-tests for mould and yeasts:

• EN 13624, Aspergillus brasiliensis
• EN 14562, Aspergillus brasiliensis
• EN 13624, Candida albicans (candida yeast)
• EN 14562, Candida albicans (candida yeast)


Tests and reviews

Reviews
The efficiency of ACT CleanCoat™ has been reviewed and recognized by laboratories and agencies such as:• European Chemical Agency, EU agency
• Danish Technical Institute, Denmark
• Dr Brill and Partner, GmbH, Germany
• ISI Food Protection, Denmark
• Danish Technical University, Environmental Engineering, Denmark
• Ministry of Environment and Food of Denmark, Denmark
• Chech Technical University, Czech Republic
• North Carolina State University, United States
• Mahidol University, Thailand
• Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, China


ACT CleanCoat™ has passed 10 standardized European norm tests (EN-tests) conducted on the following organisms:

Bacteria
S. aureus
MRSA
P. aeruginosa
E. hirae
E. coli
Salmonella

Mycobacteria
M. avium
M. terrae

Bacteria spores
B. subtilis

Viruses
Adenovirus
Murine norovirus
Poliovirus
EV-71
Influenza A
Influenza B

Mould and yeast
A. brasiliensis
C. albicans


Passed European Norm Tests

EN numberOrganisms
EN 13704Bacillus subtilis
EN 13624Aspergillus brasiliensis, Candida albicans
EN 13697Aspergillus brasiliensisCandida albicansPseudomonas aeruginosa,
Staphylococcus aureusEnterococcus hiraeEscherichia coli
EN 14562Aspergillus brasiliensis, Candida albicans
EN 14348Mycobacterium avium, M. terrae
EN 14563Mycobacterium avium, M. terrae
prEN 16777Adenovirus, Murine norovirus
EN 14476Poliovirus, Adenovirus, Murine norovirus, EV-71, Influenza A, Influenza B
EN 13727Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, E. hirae, Salmonella, MRSA
EN 14561Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae

The Chemistry behind CleanCoat™

Photocatalysis

The natural decomposition of organic matter can be accelerated by the use of a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide (TiO₂).

Energy-rich electron-hole pairs are produced upon exposure to light (with energy above the TiO₂ band gap). When applied to any material these charge carriers interact with ambient oxygen and water, generating highly reactive hydroxyl radicals and superoxide.

These radicals can either directly attack the surrounding microbial matter or recombine via different pathways, forming hydrogen peroxide.

A diagram showing how photocatalysis works


Hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide are the reactive oxygen species (ROS) ultimately responsible for the biocidal activity of ACT CleanCoat™ through non-selective oxidation of organic material.

The catalyst is never consumed during the reaction, ensuring a continuous process during the service life of the coating. The TiO₂ particles in ACT CleanCoat™ are specifically engineered to work in all environments.

CleanCoat chemical formula


Free radicals induce oxidative stress, and they attack all major classes of biomolecules, mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, also known as lipids, of the cell membranes.

The free radicals in ACT CleanCoat™ work by oxidizing and attacking the cell membrane of microbes – in other words, the microbes decompose.

The oxidative degradation of lipids (known as lipid peroxidation) is very destructive, as it proceeds as a self-perpetuating chain reaction. After the destruction of the cell wall, the free radicals proceed to oxidize the cell core.

Due to the constant high oxidative rate of free radicals, the oxidation of the cells creates water, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Both the water and carbon dioxide will evaporate, leaving only the cells’ minerals on the surface.